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Table 3 Brief definition of the four constructs of the PTT model

From: Developing tools to promote culturally competent compassion, courage, and intercultural communication in healthcare

Cultural Awareness
The degree of awareness we have about our own cultural background and cultural identity. This helps us to understand the importance of our cultural heritage and that of others, and makes us appreciate the dangers of ethnocentricity.
Cultural Knowledge
Derives from a number of disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, biology, nursing, medicine, and the arts, and can be gained in a number of ways. Meaningful contact with people from different ethnic groups can enhance knowledge around their health beliefs and behaviours as well as raise understanding around the problems they face.
Cultural Sensitivity
This entails the crucial development of appropriate interpersonal relationships with our clients. An important element in achieving cultural sensitivity is how professionals view people in their care. Unless clients are considered as true partners, culturally sensitive care is not being achieved.
Cultural Competence
The capacity to provide effective healthcare taking into consideration people's cultural beliefs, behaviours and needs. Cultural competence is both a process and an output, and results from the synthesis of knowledge and skills which we acquire during our personal and professional lives and to which we are constantly adding.
This model combines both the multi-culturalist and the anti- racist perspectives and facilitates the development of a broader understanding around inequalities, human and citizenship rights, whilst promoting the development of skills needed to bring about change at the patient/client level.
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