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Table 5: Characteristics of quantitative studies reporting correlations and associations

From: Young carers: growing up with chronic illness in the family - a systematic review 2007-2017

N Reference Aim Questionnaire; survey method Study design, analysis, sample
1. Pakenham et al. (2007)
Relations between social support, appraisal and coping and both positive and negative outcomes in young carers Newly developed questionnaire, consisting of: demographic information, caregiving context variables, stress appraisal -, social support-, coping strategies – and adjustment items Survey
Bivariate and multivariate analyses Convenience sampling: Young carers n = 100 (F n = 72; M n = 28)
Age: 10–25
Care recipients: parents
2. Ireland and Pakenham (2010)
To develop an empirically derived multi-item scale of care tasks performed by young people in the context of family illness/disability Based on the literature review and in consultation with a reference group of five young carers, a questionnaire was developed (30 items): “Youth Activities of Caregiving Scale (YACS)” Survey
Bivariate and multivariate analyses Convenience sampling: Young carers n = 135 (F n = 81; M n = 54)
Age: 10–24 Care recipients: mother n = 73, father n = 25, sibling n = 37
3. Ireland and Pakenham (2010)
To (1) examine relations between youth adjustment and three sets of predictors: parental illness/disability characteristics, caregiving, and parent–child attachment, and (2) to explore differences on these variables between youths of parental physical illness/disability and youths of parental mental illness Newly developed questionnaire, consisting of: demographic information, illness and disability variables, Inventory of parent–child attachment (IPPA), the Young Carers of Parents Inventory (YCOPI), The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Survey
Bivariate and multivariate analyses Convenience sampling: Young carers n = 81 (F n = 53; M n = 28)
Age: 10–25
Care recipients: mother n = 56, father n = 17, both parents n = 8
4. Pakenham and Cox
1. to explore the dimensions of caregiving in children of a parent with MS
2. to examine relations between the caregiving dimensions and child demographic, parental illness and caregiving context variables
3. to examine associations between the caregiving dimensions and child positive and negative adjustment outcomes, concurrently and over a 12-month interval
4. to examine levels of correspondence between parent and child ratings of thechild’s caregiving activities
Two age-appropriate youth questionnaires: 10–13 years and 14–20 years were developed, consisting of: demographic information, MS parent illness variables, caregiving context variables, Family responsibilities (YCOPI), Youth Activities of Caregiving Scale (YACS) and adjustment variables Longitudinal study, Survey
Bivariate and multivariate analyses Convenience sampling:
Assessed time T1:
Families n = 88; parents n = 85; partners n = 55; children (F n = NR; M n = NR)n = 130
Assessed time T2 (after 12 month):
n = NR Families; n = 71 parents; n = 48 partners; n = 91 children (F n = NR; M n = NR) Age: 10–20 Care recipients: parents
5. Lloyd (2013)
To look at the extent of caring responsibilities experienced by children and at the relationship between caring, educational experiences and academic performance, and children’s happiness, health and well-being Self-developed questionnaire, consisting of: sociodemographic data School data
Health and wellbeing (Kidscreen)Happiness
School and educational achievement (transfer-test, GL, AQE)
Kids‘Life and Times Survey (online)
Univariate and bivariate analysis
Random sample: n = 4029 children
Age: 10–11
Care recipient: grandmother 44%, mother 33%, brother 33%, grandfather 27%, father 26%, sister 26%
6. Nagl-Cupal et al. (2014)
To describe the prevalence and related factors of informal caregiving performed by children
To quantify caregiving activities and intensity, the motivation for To calculate the prevalence rate of all underage children in Austria based on the sample data
Self-developed questionnaire, consisting of:
sociodemographic data, caregiving activities, type and frequency of illness of the family member in need, caregiving arrangement, motivations of caregiving, effects of caregiving, personal wishes
Descriptive cross-sectional study
Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis
Random sample (multi-level probability sample): n = 7403 children (F n = 53,5%; M n = 46,5%)
Age: 10–14
Care recipient: mother 23%, grandmother 22%, father 14%, grandfather 11%, siblings 12%
7. Cassidy et al. (2014)
To test whether a stress-coping model can contribute to an explanation of the impact of caregiving and whether resilience and benefit finding can mediate that relationship Self-developed questionnaire, consisting of:
sociodemographic data, measures (Perceived social support Scale, Adolescent Coping Scale – short form, General Health Questionnaire, Brief Resilience Scale, 19 item index of help, The Perceived Impact of Child Care-giving Scale, The Benefit Finding in Child Caregivers Scale)
univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis
Convenience sample: n = 442 children (F n = 268; M n = 174)
Age: 12–16
Care recipient: 203 children care for parents, 168 children care for a sibling, 71 care for more than one family member
Pakenham and Cox (2015)
Van Loon et al.(2017)
To examine differences in two proposed psychological components of role redistribution between youth of a parent with illness and their peers from ‘healthy’ families
To examine the effect of parentification on both internalizing and externalizing problems of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems
Self-developed questionnaire, consisting of: Family health status, illness category, relative disadvantage, remoteness, national origins, caregiving responsibilities and experiences (Young Carer of Parents Inventory-Part A)
The Parentification Questionnaire—Youth (PQ-Y), consists of 20 items measuring the caregiving behaviors of youth in their family;
The Youth Self-Report (YSR) measuring the problems adolescents experienced in the previous 6 months.
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) - consisting of four items measuring the degree to which adolescents perceived their lives as uncontrollable, unpredictable, or overloaded in the past month;
Bivariate and multivariate analysis
Random. sample: children n = 2474 (F n = NR; M n = NR)
Age: 9–20
Care recipient: parents and other ill family member, several ill family member Survey
Bivariate and multivariate analyses
Convenience sample: n = 118 adolescents (F n = 50,8%; M n = 49,2%)
Age: 11–16
Care recipient: parents with a mental illness: mother 70,3%, father 29,7%